Etymology: Originally written to mean beautiful / intricately overlaid pattern. Over time, the meaning extended to writing/text.
Hint: Take the base as cross and the top as top.
Mnemonic: A CROSS IS A BASIC FORM OF WRITING - EASY TO TOP!
文学 (bungaku) literature
文字 (moji) character
文部省 (monbushou) Ministry of Education
(Based upon Henshall, 1998)